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PhD dissertation proposal

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PhD dissertation proposal

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INTERNATIONAL SECURITY AND COOPERATION AFTER 9/11

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A decade after the deadly attack on the World Trade Centre in America on September 11th, a lot has changed. Nations are taking enormous measures to ensure the safety of their citizens. Huge budgets and millions of dollars are invested in the hunt for terrorists, their sympathizers, ensure safer airs and airlines, protection of borders and the struggle to improve image are some of the examples that America is taking. After the attack, so much changed internationally; America’s technological powerhouse was attacked despite its sophisticated weapons and machinery. 1What this meant is that any country within a lesser technological span faced the risk of attack (Aydin 2005, 1).
International security was challenged. Action needed to be taken in response to the attack. The world and specially America was caught unawares. No one had seen it coming. Emergency meetings were called to address a crisis that no one had seen coming.
2The attack revolutionized the way the whole world viewed security. It also changed the mindsets of many about terrorism and the dangers it exposes the world to. In general, the attack had the following impacts on international security;
1. Fear- Many people were terrified to leave their houses. Every place was viewed unsafe. Many were afraid of using the air to travel as it was viewed to expose them to terror attack. This was because the attack was carried out using airplanes. This was the immediate impact from citizens of different countries and especially America.
2. Tension- No one near the cause of the attack and next destination of the terrorists. The next target could not be established and, therefore, the appropriate security measures would not be easy to implement. Many nations watched in shock and did not know their next course of action. They believed that if the security of America was challenged then theirs was nothing and anything would happen anywhere and anytime.
3. Suspicion-The attack was carried out by Muslim terrorists. However, America in response raged war on Muslim countries and raged armed attacks on Iraq and Afghanistan. This was a result of suspicion. America attacked them on the belief that every Muslim is a terrorist supported by their mother countries. Muslim countries on their part felt under threat and prejudiced. They believed that Americans were acting out of imaginations but not reality. In response, they called on the Muslims globally for a jihad. To them, their religion was under attack, and they had to defend it.
4. Rivalry- To this day a lot of rivalry exists between the West and Arabian countries. The citizens may not be party to this rivalry, but their leaderships know what this means too well. The West views Arab world as the breeding sites for all terrorism activities around the world (Currie 2002, 2). 3Arab countries on their side view the West as attackers of Islam because they are non-believers. The result of this rivalry is increased nuclear activities in many Arab counties. They believe that one day they will be forced to use their weapons in a war and the highest possibility is that the West was the only opponent.
5. Hatred-Citizens of various countries hold a noticeable hated for others from or in another country. For example, American citizens may bear hatred for those in Arab countries. They view them as heartless and lack human feelings. They do not understand how they killed innocent Americans and foreigners. Arabians, on the other hand, hold a conception that Americans are Pagans who have no religion and are ought to ensure Islam as a religion does not grow. They view them as manipulators who do anything to their advantage (James P. Muldoon 2009,2).
6. Increased nuclear activities- Almost every country today possesses nuclear weapons or weapons of mass destruction. In fact, many set up nuclear industries immediately after the attack. The epitome was the swelling suspicion, rivalry and hatred among nations. They are ready for war under the slightest provocation.
7. Political instability- Many governments that are seen as sympathizing with the west in Arabian countries have been toppled. The same applies to many Christian states that are deemed to sympathize with terrorists. America and European countries fight hard to ensure that they fund groups to topple and overthrow the government.
8. Increased security checks- Today one has to contend with the numerous security checks at border points and at airports. Questions like who packed their bags are a common phenomenon. They are also required to explain the use of various gadgets that they may e carrying. 4The aim is to ensure safety of travelers and that f those at their destinations. After this check, they also undergo full body scan and in case the person is an international terrorist suspect, the process is even more bureaucratic.
9. Billions of dollars invested into global security- As earlier stated the world was at the middle of a crisis that it has never experienced before. Something required action. The response was that billions of funds were used to improve global security. Organizing conferences to discuss the way forward, funding security researches and implementing the findings and recommendations of security researches called for large amounts of funding from stake holders globally (Griffith 2004, 129).
10. Division and Separation- The world never spoke in one voice after the attack. It was divided into Christianity, Islam and neutral. Many counties supported the American activities in Afghanistan and Iraq while others did not. The impact was that any security project was opposed by opposers of America and supported by supports of the same. 5The aftermath was that many security projects never went through in international conferences and in the Big eight countries. A quorum was difficult to attain for such matters to be passed.
The world was also divided along religion lines, where Muslims supported Muslims and Christians supported Christians. This only had the effect of paralyzing global efforts of improving security.
11. Countries spoke different security languages globally – No country seemed to agree on the proposal that the other had concerning world security. Others, due to the conception that some countries were malicious or prejudice, they made every effort to ensure that no motion succeeded.
12. Emergence of insurgencies- This was from the belief that governments of the day were ran by western countries placing relevance to Americans. To counter this, locals formed groups to fight with the state, and this is the routine to this date.
Global Responses to Terrorism
The September 9th attack changed by a great deal: the thinking, fears and fighting of terrorism. Terrorism was not a new idea, but the attack got attention from many. However, the world has nothing much to show on the fight against terrorism (Jones 2010, 201). Efforts are always made but, nothing conclusive has come out of the efforts so far.
It has been close to a decade since the attack. After the attack, a Global Crisis Group was formed. It has many workers who operate on a full time basis towards prevention and resolving conflicts. Inclusive in their responsibilities is terrorism. They are located in over 50 countries around the world. Every day, they bring in large volumes of analysis and suggestions and also advises on what needs to be done (Griffith 2004, 87). However, no one seems to care and if anything no single government takes its findings and recommendations seriously.
The fight against terrorism, however, cannot be simply termed as failed. Some efforts bore fruits and should be hailed. A good example is when a huge deal of Al-Qaeda’s leadership was captured and killed. 1Heartbreaking was the fact that they were able to maintain their followers’ worldwide. Another success story was in Indonesia where police arrested and detained an internationally wanted terrorist. They succeeded in doing so while maintain and observing human rights. No one was arbitrarily arrested or detained. This was commendable.
Globally many countries have laid emphasis on the important of keeping a close eye on internal security.

At airports where many people leave and enter countries, security details are not left out. One is always engaged in questions and a number of uncountable security doors. These doors allow passing only after a person’s details is taken and the authorities confirming that they are safe to enter their territories. 2This is a positive not and should be recognized and appreciated, the question that demands an answer is, what happens in commuter trains and buses/ Are these security checks maintained or is it just a ploy to confuse human thinking?
Many and new global conventions, conferences and resolutions have been set up. They are tasked with responsibility of cutting and freezing the funders and supporters of terrorists and their activities. This is a worthy thing to do, but, attacks from terrorists globally occur even without investing too much finance into them. Many materials involved in terrorism activities are cheap and easily accessible. This cannot therefore be termed as successful despite its founding, but its efforts are appreciated.
Defending human rights in the fight against corruption is among the responses that the world is taking. No one is allowed to arrest, detain or kill another human being in the name of hunting down terrorists. Human rights should be protected and upheld every time despite the challenge at hand. Governments should not mistreat their citizens in the name of fighting terrorism.
States are prohibited from supporting terrorists or terrorism activities. This means that countries should universally back the anti- terror war. They should not hide terrorism suspects or even support any terrorism activities. The world should know who terrorists are and their activities and the fact that they are a threat to global peace and security.
Another method that the world is adopting is persuasion. Many groups and insurgents that keep the global peace summit on it toes due to frequent attacks are engaged in a more peaceful and engaging dialogue. No war is involved, and they are instead requested to air their grievances without disturbing the world peace (Currie 2002, 4). These groups are urged to join other groups that will help them attain their goals rather than terrorism.
Initiative to have compulsory membership to international peace organizations is under way. The word compulsory or mandatory may not be the best to refer to them but, rules and regulations extended to none members or the uncooperative states are serious. This means that whether the country is willing or not, they have to be members. 3A country that does register with these organizations is treated the same way a terrorist is or even worse. This means hat other members will avoid any contacts with them and on matters trade, suctions and trade embargoes will be imposed. The major weakness of this policy is that, it is forced and done under duress. It therefore lacks commitment and members who join for fear of discrimination do not feel tasked to participate in global anti-terror efforts. It would be more productive and successful if this was optional, and members to choose if to join or not. This way, the results and support towards the same would be overwhelming.
Finally, all efforts possible efforts may be put in place to fight terrorism. One thing is clear though before any of them is implemented and its success evaluated, a particular aspect needs to be taken care of: The human brain. The world should not overlook the fact that in all its activities eyes of citizens from nations globally are closely watching and following. Everything starts from the mind. 4It is crucial that the citizens are provided with crucial information on their roles in the fight on terrorism and what to expect. They should be warned that global stability is for the sake of all. They should also be made aware that, peace and stability come with a cost. This will make them prepared and respond positively in case a revenge attack is launched by terrorists. It all starts by gaining the support of the public. If the public supports its leadership in the fight against terrorism, then the war is as good as won.

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LINKING THEORY AND PRACTICE

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A student is normally motivated so much when he or she performs best in whatever he or she is doing in his or her endeavors. Teachers are supposed to look for the best ways possible to help students to perform well in whatever they are doing in school or even outside class activities. Success is achieved through maximum practice, and by the help of teachers, students are supposed to do more practice so that they can succeed and hence they can be motivated in everything they do through success.
Environment is another tool in the success of an individual. Enabling environments provides a student a good time of study and practice of what he or she had previously been taught and even learn what he or she had not been taught by the teacher. Environment in this case is the conditions in an area occupied by a student during his or her study. A good learning environment can be described as the one without anything distractive such as noise, public noise and even people passing by.
A teacher ought to inspect and connect students when they are having a lesson. The motivation of students is normally determined by what the teachers do in front of the kids. Some of the things teacher do can motivate or demoralizes students. For instance, a student will be demoralized to see his teacher doing things that are not worth hence making the student not to work hard towards that level of that teacher. The better the teachers give good examples to the students, the higher the student is motivated, and the less they give best examples the lesser the level of motivation. The approach of Dialect says that motivation come up to the students, and teaching always depends on the students’ hard work that they place on their education. Learners become thrilled up because of teachers keeping on holding to them and even the method employed in motivating them. Doctrine of motivation can also include the plan where learners contain their own motivation which they can also put in their learning. Teachers motivate students by giving them an enabling environment to learn. The commitment of scholars is being made depending on how the teachers motivate them either negatively or positively.
Worksheet 2:
There is an interaction between teacher and student to enable the teacher to know the weakness of the children. The kids are trained to speak eloquently, and they are corrected their mistakes by the teachers where they are wrong and the teachers go on helping the kids in learning how to pronounce the language as it should be. With the connection the kids have developed with their teacher, make them to be able to freely talk to their teacher. The kids are able to ask questions on different things that they feel they don’t understand. The teacher always answers the questions, and she is able to tell the kid’s weak and strong points according to their participation.
Before the day starts, the teacher normally starts by letting the kids to recite the kids’ rhymes and also let them sing some kinds songs. The teacher also let them recite some poems which he had assigned them early. This helps a lot the children in learning the language. At story time, the teacher narrates a story to the kids by describing them pictures to make them understand better.
Cognitive evaluation theory is one of the theories that help teachers to know at an early stage the effects certain extrinsic motivators may contain. The theory says that using of extrinsic motivators in a manner that is not controlled, may lead to the engagement of learners making them to be highly motivated. Some of the examples of extrinsic motivation can include: praises and rewards. By controlling of rewards, the student is disabled from engaging in the personal willingness in learning thus affecting intrinsic motivation in a negative way. Rewards which come unexpectedly can help a student in engaging very willingly. Informational rewards, because the student gets to be willing to even know what he or she did not know.


A student’s ability to grasp what he or she has learned in class can be very much be affected by the controlling of the rewards. Extrinsic motivation help the students who are intellectually impaired help so much as they are highly motivated. It also helps in pleasing to the eye the involvement of students at the cost of intrinsic motivation. a number of teachers working in this area of special education, on the other hand, do not motivate them by rewarding, but try to take care of their inner capacities as a result make the students to become individually-motivated thus making the students to engage more which leads to the better achievement. All students have intrinsic motivation, but a good number of them require support to take out what is in them.
The example of extrinsic motivation include: interjected motivation, external regulation, and identified motivation. The best results come from autonomous motivation. In most cases, it is noted that if the support given by the teacher is withdrawn, those students that depend on extrinsic motivation may perhaps fail to get motivation.
A source which is very motivational that generate the longing of a person to press forward growth develops collectively and psychologically are well through communication with the environment known as a mental need. When these requirements are incorporated by the teachers in their teaching, the learners are motivated.
Worksheet 4:
In a class there different types of children in terms of age, the community they come from, academic performance, sex and even different social status. The teacher will tend to have more concentration on aim weak child in class than the one who is academically strong. So the teachers ensure that he knows each and every child in class to deal with him or her according to how special the child is. For instance, some communities will not advocate for some other thing and in that case the teacher is supposed to know what to mention that cannot insult the other kid. The teacher handles different sex in different ways. For instance the teacher will not handle a girl kid the way he can handle a boy kid.

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